Chemistry Virtual Labs
Chemistry Virtual Labs
Introduction: Titration or titration is an analytical process that consists of measuring the concentration of a liquid by means of another (titrant) of known concentration, measuring the volumes that react.
2. The PH
Introduction: Experimental procedure. The pH indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a substance and various procedures can be used to measure it
3. Speed of a Reaction
Introduction: The speed of a reaction is expressed in terms of the disappearance of the reactants and the appearance of the products, in a given time. Every chemical reaction arises from the number of effective collisions between the particles (molecules, ions ...) of the reacting substances. This number is proportional to the amount of particles found in the solution (concentration).
4. Metal Corrosion
Introduction: Corrosion can be defined as the deterioration of a material as a result of a chemical attack in its environment. Most of the corrosion of metals occurs by electrochemical attack, since metals have free electrons capable of establishing electrochemical cells between the microcrystals of a metallic alloy or between dissimilar metals.
Introduction: Polyamides are used mainly in the form of fibers, although within the plastic materials sector they have reached some importance, mainly for engineering applications. Polyamides formed by fibers and their more immediate derivatives are known as nylons. At present, nylon 6,6 and nylon 6 constitute almost all of the nylon produced to obtain fibers for the textile industry; However, there are many other very important nylons, such as: nylon 11, nylon 12, nylon 6,10, nylon 6,12 and others.
6. Electrolysis of Water
Introduction: Observe the electrolysis of water due to color variations, due to the chemical transformations that act directly on the indicators. This practice can be done with an opaque projector for the whole group of students.
7. Formation of Metallic Crystals
Introduction: Metals have different capacity to reduce or oxidize and, therefore, have different oxidizing or reducing power. When a metal tends to oxidize, then it is capable of losing electrons very easily. These electrons will serve to reduce to another substance: therefore, a metal with a tendency to oxidize acts as a reducing agent. Conversely, a metal that is more easily scavenged by electrons will be reduced by "ripping" electrons from another substance. This metal will act as an oxidant as well.
8. Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
Introduction: One of the fundamental characteristics of aldehydes and ketones is the existence in their structure (formula) of the carbonyl functional group. When carbonyl is associated with a primary carbon it forms aldehydes, and when it is on a secondary carbon it forms ketones. Aldoses and ketoses is a general classification into which monosaccharides (sugars) are divided.
9. Atomic Emission in Flame
Introduction: An atom is capable of absorbing different types of energy, especially heat and light, which lead to a series of excited states. These states have certain energies and characteristics of each substance. There is a tendency to quickly regain ground state. Achieving "return to equilibrium" can be done through molecular shocks ((loss of energy in the form of heat) or through the emission of radiation.
10. Calorimetry and Photocolorimetry
Introduction: Colorimetric techniques are based on the measurement of radiation absorption in the visible area by colored substances. On some occasions, the sample that we wish to determine does not have a color by itself; in this case, it is necessary to carry out a color development using reagents that give rise to colored substances with the sample you want to study.
1. Copper electrodeposition
Introduction: In metal corrosion practice the electrochemical nature of corrosion reactions was mentioned. These reactions involve a transfer of electrons between the metal that undergoes the attack (which acts as an electronic donor or anode) and a second substance that receives such electrons, and which is therefore reduced, acting as an oxidant in the redox reaction. P >
Introduction: Thin plate chromatography (FPC) is the technique of separation and identification of chemical substances by the different retention experienced by the components of a mixture as they are more or less adsorbed by the components of a fixed phase when they are entrained by a solvent. This adsorbent, generally with an adhesive, is deposited on a sheet of glass or other material that acts as an inert support for the layer.
3. Ionic and Covalent Substances
Introduction: The practice presents the elements for the student to check in the laboratory the characteristics of the uniform rectilinear motion and to draw up graphs.
4. Study of Chemical Equilibrium
Introduction: The practice presents the elements for the student to verify in the laboratory the characteristics of the uniformly accelerated movement and to create graphs.
Introduction: This practice leads the student to check Newton's three laws in the laboratory in an entertaining way and with simple material.
6. Various Organic Reactions
Introduction: The practice aims for the student to analyze the causes and effects of friction and to relate this concept to daily life.
It will relate friction to the opposition that a body offers to movement when a force is applied to it, changing the roughness.
7. Conservation of Matter: Fundamental Laws
Introduction: The practice presents in a simple way the concepts of force, area, work, time, power and the relationship between them as well as their units. It is also intended that the student calculate the area, measure the force, calculate the work, measure the time and calculate the power.
8. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
Introduction: The practice intends for the student to verify the conservation of the momentum in elastic collisions of bodies.
9. Precipitation Reactions
Introduction: Practice presents in a simple way the way to calculate the density of bodies in solid state with regular and irregular shape, by using the balance to measure the mass and the calculation of the volume using the vernier for bodies of regular shape and the displacement technique in water for solids of irregular shape. The density of liquids will also be measured using a hydrometer.for
10. Extraction and Partition Coefficient
Introduction: The practice intends for the student to experimentally verify Archimedes' principle by using the hydrostatic balance.
Objectives of the practice: Correctly use a balance in the measurement of mass. Correctly measure the volume of liquids, using pipettes and test tubes, as well as the volume of solids due to the displacement of liquids. Appreciate the importance of measuring correctly.
2. Manufacture of Glass Material
Objectives of the practice: In this experiment you will develop the ability to build simple glassware to work on some micro-scale practices.
3. Pollution Effects
Objectives of the practice: To simulate the phenomenon of acid rain. Observe the effects of acid rain on plant material.
4. Simple Distillation
Objectives of the practice: To experiment with the separation of liquids by means of distillation.
5. Column and Paper Chromatography
Objectives of the practice: perform the separation of mixtures by chromatography on paper and column. Show how natural products and man-made products are generally mixtures of substances.
6. Determination of the boiling point
Objectives of the practice: Determine the boiling point of a liquid.
7. Determination of the melting point
Objectives of the practice: Determine the melting temperature of some compounds.
8. Crookes discharge tube
Objectives of the practice: To observe some of the properties of cathode rays in a Crookes tube.
9. Periodic Trend
Objectives of the practice: Periodic trends will be observed in the reactivity of the elements of the same column and of the same period of the periodic table. The oxides of some elements of the second and third period will be investigated to see if they form acidic or basic solutions. The reactivity of the halogen family will also be investigated.
10. Identification of Metals by Flame Coloring
Objectives of the practice: Observe the coloration that some metals produce in the flame.
11. Chemical Links
Objectives of the practice: React the type of bond that some solid substances present with their melting temperature.
11. Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
Objectives of the practice: In this practice the ability to name the inorganic compounds formed by the combination of the different elements organized in the Periodic Table is developed.
1. Preliminary Essays
Lab Objective: Recognize some differences between organic and inorganic compounds. Relate physical properties such as state of aggregation, color and odor with the molecular structure of an organic substance. Identify the presence of acidic or basic functions through pH indicator paper. From the ignition test distinguish some groups of organic compounds such as aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, oxygenated hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, organic and organometallic salts. Recognize in known samples according to their functional group, the concepts related to solubility, unsaturation and aromaticity so that the student becomes familiar with the correct identification.
2. Elemental Analysis of Organic Compounds
Lab Objective: Transform the heteroatoms of an organic compound into their ionic form. Recognize the main elements that make up an organic compound through specific reactions. Relate the physical and chemical changes of some pure substances or in solution with the chemical reactions that allow us to recognize the carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and halogens present in an organic compound.
3. Solubility Test
Lab Objective: Classify organic compounds according to their solubility in water, ethyl ether, and solutions of HCl, NaOH, NaHCO3 and HNO3. From the solubility behavior, relate the group or functional groups that are present in each of the known samples.
4. Determination of the Melting Point
Lab Objective: Determine the melting point of pure substances. Understand the basic principles that affect the measurement of the melting point. Gain experience in the calibration of a thermometer working with known samples.
5. Determination of the Boiling Point
Lab Objective: Determine the boiling point of pure substances. Understand the factors that affect the boiling point of a substance. Acquire the necessary skill in determining the boiling point of a substance.
6. Reactivity and Characterization of Hydrocarbons
Lab Objective: Check similarities and differences in the physicochemical and spectroscopy properties in the infrared region of Alkanes, Alkenes and Aromatics. Using different qualitative tests to characterize the functional groups present in known and unknown hydrocarbon samples.
7. Physical and Chemical Properties of Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Lab Objective: Check the miscibility in water of some alcohols (low molecular weight and poor solubility of those with high molecular weight), phenols and ethers. Differentiate alcohols (primary, secondary and tertiary) from phenols. Differentiate aliphatic ethers from hydrocarbons; differentiate alkyl ethers from aryl ethers and alkylaryl ethers.
8. Physical and Chemical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
Lab Objective: Check some physical characteristics of aldehydes and ketones. Determine the presence of carbonyl groups that indicate the presence of aldehydes and ketones by reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Differentiate aldehydes from ketones by oxidation reactions with Fehling, Tollens and Benedict reagents. Determine if an acetal group of type R (H) C (OR) 2 is present as part of the molecular structure of an organic compound using the haloform test.
9. Physical and Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids
Lab Objective: Recognize carboxylic acids and some of their easily hydrolyzable derivatives, by reactivity with NaHCO3, solubility in basic solutions and the limitations of solubility in water depending on their molecular structure. Learn to recognize weakly acidic compounds using the iodate iodide test. Determine the neutralization equivalent of an acidic substance.